In Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) there are two 'go to' techniques for elemental analysis: Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) and Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (EELS).
EDS is a mature technique that can be used for most specimens. The intensity of the generated X-rays is proportional to the mass thickness of the sample. However, this can become a limitation for very thin specimens or those comprising light elements. On the other hand, EELS is more suitable for thin samples where the thickness is less than the inelastic mean free path of electrons in the material. EELS does, however, give a high signal to noise for light elements. Simultaneous acquisition of both signals is a powerful tool for materials analysis.
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